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Iontogel 3 Explained In Fewer Than 140 Characters

Zelma Moseley
2023-10-23 17:17 61 0


Iontogel 3

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1. Energy density

Ionogels are a 3D polymer networks that contain ionic fluids. They have excellent chemical, electrochemical and thermal stability. They are nonflammable, have negligible vapor-pressure, and have a large potential window. This makes them suitable for supercapacitors. The presence of ionic fluids within their structure provides them with mechanical strength. Ionogels are able to be used without encapsulation and are able to withstand harsh conditions like high temperatures.

They are therefore promising candidates for portable and wearable electronics. However, they have poor compatibility with the electrodes due to their large Ion size and high viscosity. This results in slow ionic diffusion and a decrease in capacitance as time passes. Researchers have incorporated ionogels into solid-state capacitances (SC) to achieve high energy densities and Iontogel long-lasting durability. The resulting SCs based on iontogel outperformed the previously reported ILs as well as gel-based ILSCs.

To make the iontogel based SCs, 0.6 g copolymer (P(VDF-HFP), was mixed with 1.8 g hydrophobic EMIMBF4 Ionic fluid (IL). The solution was then poured onto a Ni-based film and sandwiched in between MCNN/CNT/CNT films and CCNN/CNT/CNT/CNT film, which were used as positive and negative electrodes. The ionogel electrode was then evaporated in an Ar-filled glovebox which resulted in a symmetrical FISC with 3.0 V potential window.

The FISCs made of iontogel showed an excellent endurance with a retention of up to 88 percent after 1000 cycles under straight and bending conditions. Additionally, they showed excellent stability, maintaining an even potential window when the bending. These results indicate that iontogels are a durable and efficient alternative to traditional electrolytes based on ionic liquids. They may also pave the path for future development of flexible lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, these iontogel-based FISCs can be easily customized to meet the requirements of various applications. They can be shaped in accordance with the dimensions of the device and are able of charging or discharge at different angles. This makes them a perfect candidate for applications in which the dimensions of the device are limited and the bending angle is not fixed.

2. Conductivity of Ionics

The conductivity of the ionogel's ions can be greatly affected by the structure of the polymer network. A polymer with a high crystallinity and Tg has higher ionic conductivity compared to one with low crystallinity or Tg. Therefore, iontogels with a high ionic conductivity are required for applications that require electrochemical performance. Recently, we were able to create a self healing ionogel that has excellent mechanical properties and high ionic conductivity. This new ionogel is prepared by locking ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMIM TFSI), into poly(aminopropyl-methylsiloxane) grafted with [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (METAC), in the presence of tannic acid (TA). The result is a dual crosslinked system that is fully physical, consisting of ionic clusters forming between METAC, PAPMS and TA, PAPMS and hydrophobic networks between TA, PAPMS and iontogel 3

The Ionogel is a chemically crosslinked material with excellent mechanical properties that include high elastic strain-to-break and high strain recovery. It also has excellent thermal stability, and an ionic conductivity of up to 1.19mS cm-1 at 25 degrees Celsius. Additionally, the ionogel can completely heal in just 12 hours at room temperature, with a recovery of up to 83%. This is because of a fully physical dual crosslinked network that is made up of METAC and TA as well as hydrogen bonding between iontogel3 & the TA.

In addition, we have been able alter the mechanical properties of ionogels with different ratios of trithiol crosslinker as well as dithiols within the material that is used as the starting. By increasing the levels of dithiols, we are able to reduce the amount of network crosslinking in the Ionogels. We also discovered that altering the stoichiometry of thiol-acrylate significantly affected the ionogels' polymerization kinetics.

The ionogels also have extremely high dynamic viscoelasticity with a modulus of storage up to 105 Pa. The Arrhenius plots for the ionic fluid BMIMBF4 and Ionogels with varying amounts hyperbranched polymer show typical rubber-like behavior. In the temperature range investigated, the storage modulus is independent of frequency. Ionic conductivity is independent of frequency, which is important for applications as solid state electrolytes.

3. Flexibility

Ionogels made of Ionic liquids and polymer substrates have excellent electrical properties and have high stability. They are promising materials that can be utilized in iontronic applications such as triboelectric microgenerators, thermoelectric ionic materials, and strain sensors. Their flexibility is a major obstacle. We have developed a flexible, Ionic-conductive ionogel that self-heals by weak and strong interactions that are reversible. The ionogel is highly resistant to both shear and stretching forces, and is able to stretch up to 10 times its original size, without losing the ionic conducting properties.

The ionogel is made up of the monomer acrylamide that has the carboxyl group attached to a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVDF) chain. It is soluble with water as well as ethanol and acetone. It also has a high tensile strength of 1.6 MPa and break elongation of 9.1 percent. The ionogel can be easily applied to non-conductive surfaces via the solution casting method. It also makes a good candidate for ionogel supercapacitor since it has a specific capacity of 62 F g-1, a current density of 1 A g-1, and superior stability during cyclic cycles.

Additionally, the ionogel is able to generate electromechanical signals with an extremely high frequency and magnitude, as demonstrated by the paper fan as an illustration of a flexible strain sensor (Fig. 5C). Moreover, when the ionogel-coated paper is folded repeatedly and sealed like an accordion it will produce reproducible and stable electromechanical responses.

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4. Healability

The unique properties of Iontogel 3 make it ideal for a variety of applications, including information security, soft/wearable electronics and energy harvesters (e.g. convert mechanical energy into electrical energy). Ionogels are transparent and self-healing when crosslinking's reversible reaction is controlled in a controlled manner.

To prepare ionogels, a block copolymer of poly(styrene)-b-poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-r-acrylic acid) (P(St)-b-P(DMAAm-r-AAc)) is cast into an ionic liquid (IL) and crosslinked using the thermoresponsive Diels-Alder reaction. Ionogels that result are high in Ionic conductivity, tensile strength, and resilience while also having a wide thermal stability window.

For a more advanced application, the ionogels were doped with carbon quantum dots through dynamic covalent cross-linking of chitosan with glutaraldehyde and chemical cross-linking of acrylamide in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIMCl). By incorporating the ionic dipole interactions between DMAAm r AAc blocks Ionogels can be fabricated as a flexible and stretchable elastomer. Ionogels were also discovered to have excellent transparency and self-healing characteristics when subjected to cyclic stretching.

As illustrated in Figure 8b, a similar method to enhance materials' self-healing properties is to make use of photo-responsive chromophores that form dimers when exposed to light through [2-2] or [4-4] cycle addition reactions. This technique allows for the fabrication of reversible block-copolymer ion gels that self-heal by simply heating them to revert the dimers back to their initial states.

Another advantage of these reversible bonds is that it eliminates the need for costly crosslinking agents and permits simple modification of the material's properties. The ability to control the reversible crosslinking reaction makes ionogels adaptable and suitable for industrial and consumer applications. Furthermore, these ionogels could be designed to perform at different temperatures, by varying the concentration of the ionic liquid and the conditions for synthesis. In addition to the above mentioned applications, self-healing ionogels are also ideal for use in space because they can keep their shape and ionic conductivity at very low pressures of vapor. Further research is required to develop self healing Ionogels with greater strength and more robust. For instance, the ionogels may need to be reinforced with more robust materials, such as carbon fibers or cellulose, to ensure adequate protection against environmental stressors.


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